However, the trend in Indian wages shows a relatively rapid growing trend [ 45 ]. A minimum efficiency is not given [ 2 ]. Furthermore, the replacement probability for the lightweight parts is an expert estimate from the design team involved in the research reported here.
The whole life cycle is considered for the LCA and the environmental LCCbut the main focus in this paper is on the remanufacturing process. This could bring better transparency to the results of SLCA studies.
The national minimum wage floor has been risen from 80 INR Indian rupees, about 1. This may also be the case where used alternators from Germany are shipped to India and Sierra Leone for remanufacturing there. This is the same number and source used in a master thesis of modelling remanufactured automotive alternators - however, it was not used in cars but in small wind turbines [ 53 ].
The alternator is the automotive part with the highest remanufacturing rate [ 1 ]. She was working in the applications of LCA on building sector and strategic environmental assessment to the urban transportation systems.
Therefore, it is important to consider the worker salary or in this case, the minimum wage. According to the Social LCA guidelines [ 38 ], we should consider the main affected stakeholder group, which in this case is the workers. Creative writing for kindergarten homework Donation Amount: The SLCA shows that exporting the working conditions standard from Germany to India and Sierra Leone could improve the situation for child labour, gender equity and poverty in these two countries.
However, to facilitate the comparison of the new alternators to the remanufactured alternator, the FU ofkm is used also on the remanufactured alternator. Academic literature essays mla database for research paper cloud computing pdf trustworthy websites for research papers p plater curfew language analysis essay icief analysis essay?
Thus, the weight advantage during the use phase of the lightweight alternatives is not able to offset the higher impact of these alternators and parts lightweight spare parts which are more frequently need to be replaced during the remanufacturing.
But as remanufactured alternators and cores are frequently shipped throughout Germany, the replacement probabilities used are assumed not to differ very much from the German average.
Thereby, the measurements to improve the sustainability of the remanufacturing have been identified. Where data permits, the comparison between the new alternators and the remanufactured ones is performed.
Afterward, the comparison of the three different design alternatives and the different localization options are expressed. A fruitful option to impede the child labour throughout the value chain can be to cooperate with fair trade non-governmental organisations.
They often have experience from less-developed countries and can cooperate with local authorities and organisations to promote educational activities. This paper presents the results from a multidisciplinary research project applying LCSA on different scenarios for remanufactured alternators - three different countries and three different alternator designs are investigated - and thereby lead contribution to the development of the LCSA methodology.
The further development of the SLCA should focus on case studies, where the complete life cycle and the suitable indicators are investigated. When comparing the different design alternatives, however, the heaviest alternative, the conventional alternator, is the best option from an environmental and economic life cycle perspective.
Therefore, thekm FU may be restricted by the rest of the vehicle - as this may be scrapped before driving atkm with the remanufactured alternator. SLCA is still in its infancy, where one of the current focuses is developing the indicators to be used [ 22 ].
Results of the environmental LCA of remanufactured alternators alternative 1, conventional - location, Germany. Similar to the LCA method, environmental LCC and SLCA are life cycle approaches which have been proven useful to prevent shifting of burden from one process to another in the product life cycle [ 23 ].
In this section, firstly, the economic dimension from the remanufacturer perspective is presented and then the user perspective. What is the difference between. The range of unave marunthu essay help difference between the lightweight alternatives 2 and 3 and the conventional alternator is from two to eight times, except in the ADP elements where the differences are much smaller Bosch, a large manufacturer and remanufacturer of alternators, publishes an edition of know-how for automobiles.
She was also a reviewer of a European Ph. For the abiotic depletion impact category, the differences between the three design alternatives are small compared to the other impact categories investigated factors 2—8 cf. In this section, the LCA results for all steps of the product life cycle: Complete life cycle Germany onlydesign alternative 2 lightweight and 3 ultra-lightweight compared to design alternative 1 conventional alternator.
It has not been part of the scope of this research to investigate the replacement probabilities for alternator parts in these countries. Table 1 shows the material, weight, and replacement probability the likelihood of a part being replaced within the alternator by the remanufacturer of the different parts of the alternator for each design alternatives.
This is not surprising for a product requiring energy in the use phase. This may also be vital to the SLCA, but here further data collection and research are still necessarily required.unave marunthu essay help eminem allow me to introduce myself essay.
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