However, the system was sharply censured, and the increased prevalence of crime has been attributed to it. Once again violence and destruction swept the land, with the inevitable retaliation by the authorities.
Incrimes, many of them obviously minor, were punishable by death. This outlay came to require the imposition of crushing parish taxes. Among the most urgently recommended steps was parliamentary reform.
Injobless workers in organized groups known as the Luddites roamed the country, destroying the machinery that they believed had replaced them in the labor market. A climax was reached with the "Peterloo Massacre. From that time on, an increased amount of legislation was enacted to control the hours of labor and working conditions for children and women in manufacturing plants.
Despite the new law, English slavers continued to buy African slaves and ship them to the New World, and slavery continued to be permitted in British colonies in the Caribbean, facts frequently noted in abolitionist essays and poems. In the Society for the Abolition of the Slave Trade was established with the express goal of gaining popular acceptance and political legislation for the abolition of the British slave trade, which by the end of the eighteenth century was responsible for supplying nearly 50, slaves annually to British, French, Spanish, and Portuguese colonies in the New World.
The pressure of public opinion supported the efforts of reformers to rectify many old abuses. Over the next few years, numerous English poets and authors—among them Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Robert Southey, William Blake, Anne Yearsley, Hannah More, and William Cowper—helped further the cause of the Abolition Society by writing poems and essays meant to prod parliamentary debate and the reform of the slave trade.
One result of these circumstances, which now seem barbaric, was that juries often refused to convict the accused. After the long period of bloody conflicts, peace was restored, resulting in a general jubilation. Inmates of the workhouses became objects of public stigma, and to further heighten the unpopularity of the institutions, living arrangements in them were deliberately made harsh.
In one way, the plan was successful.
The period between and represented the zenith of English abolitionist literature, but even after English authors continued to denounce the existence of slavery in the New World, targeting especially the United States.
Their hardships were multiplied when the government issued paper currency, which produced inflation.
In spite of determined opposition in the House of Lords, the Reform Bill of was passed. Writers such as Frances Trollope, Walter Savage Landor, and Charles Dickens expressed scorn that the new nation could so passionately point to their revolutionary heritage of liberty and equality while allowing the enslavement of more than half a million black slaves in the South.
Direct relief had been in operation since the days of Queen Elizabeth. But as the violence and terror in France reached extreme heights, keen partisanship divided English society.
Fierce public indignation followed the outrage, but officials openly gave support to the action. Pickwick The Pickwick Papers had already captured a devoted following.Critical Essays Early 19th-Century England Bookmark this page Manage My Reading List Early in the French Revolution, many Englishmen enthusiastically welcomed the overthrow of the old order.
English critical essays (nineteenth century) by Jones, Edmund David; Frye, Northrop. Publication date Topics Poetry, English essays, English poetry -- 19th century History and criticism, Criticism -- Great Britain.
Publisher London ; New York [etc]: H.
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The essays here brought together are meant to illustrate English literary criticism during the nineteenth century. A companion volume representative of Renaissance and Neo-classic criticism will, it is hoped, be issued at a future date. Start your hour free trial to unlock this + page English Abolitionist Literature of the Nineteenth Century study guide and get instant access.
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